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24.2 Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDA)

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Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine-T3) and Tetraiodothyonine-T4 or Thyroxine). The hormones have profound influence on energy metabolism, protein synthesis, growth and development. They also play part in the conversion of carotene to Vitamin A and synthesis of cholesterol. Insufficient level of iodine leads to inadequate production of the hormones. This, in turn, affects brain development, physical growth and functioning of muscles, heart, liver and kidneys.

Manifestation of Iodine Deficiency: 

  • Goitre – enlarged thyroid gland from over-activity
  • Hypothyroidism – dry skin, weight gain, puffy face, frequent constipation and lethargy from under-active thyroid
  • Hyperthyroidism – exophthalmia, rapid pulse and weight loss from over-active thyroid
  • Cretinism

General Measures 

  • Use of iodated salt (strategy for control of iodine deficiency worldwide)
  • Use of of iodine  rich foods like: Drinking water (reflecting amount of I2 present in the soil) , Fish,  Sea weeds (Sea weeds are rich in iodine but are a rare component of the diet).

Pharmacological Treatment 

Injection iodized oil (IM).

  • The iodine is retained in the body tissues for a long period of time (three to five years), maintaining the thyroid hormones at normal levels.

A: Iodinated oil, 400mg (PO) repeated after one to two years

B: Lugol’s solution, 3 drop (21 mg) once

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