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16.1 Periodontal Conditions

Table of Contents

16.1.1 Gingivitis

Inflammatory changes in the gingival develop within a couple of days of undisturbed bacterial growth on the gingival margin of the erupted tooth in the oral cavity

Diagnostic Criteria:

  • Gingival redness
  • Swollen and shiny gingival tissue
  • Increased tendency of the gingival to bleed on gentle probing or spontaneously, during tooth brushing or even on touch and on biting bread and fruits
  • Bad breath from the mouth

Prevention and non-pharmacological Treatment

  • Counsel to perform proper oral hygiene care
  • Remove accumulated plaque and teach oral hygiene on systematic tooth brushing and other adjuvant means of oral hygiene (dental flossing, tongue cleaning on the dorsal part, use of mouth washes including saline mouth wash)

16.1.2 Periodontitis

This is the progression of the inflammation of gingival into the deep tissue affecting the periodontal membrane causing periodontal pockets, introduction of infection and destruction of periodontium. The damage of the periodontal membrane, periodontal ligaments and eventually alveolar bone leads to formation of pockets which eventually favours more pathogenic bacterial growth. As the destruction continues the teeth become loose and may eventually fall out.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Reddened, swollen gingiva
  • Easily bleeding gingival on gently probing
  • Periodontal pocket
  • Loose/mobile teeth
  • Bad breath from the mouth
  • Gingival recession

Investigation: Mainly X-ray (orthopantomogram (OPG)) to determine extent of bone loss

Non-pharmacological Treatment

  • Instruct and guide the patients on proper oral hygiene for proper plaque control
  • Plaque control should be undertaken by the dentists by scaling and root planning (this may need several visits as may be necessary)
  • Advanced treatment is required– if refractory/resistant to treatment or patient has systemic diseases/ conditions.

Pharmacological Treatment

Mouth wash: Do not swallow

A: Hydrogen peroxide 3% 6 hourly for at least for 5 days


A: Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% 12 hourly at least for 5 days


Use antibiotics only for refractory and severe cases as well as those with evidence of periodontal abscess formation:

A: Metronidazole (PO) 400mg 8 hourly for 8 days


A: Amoxicillin (PO) 500 mg 8 hourly for 8 days


A: Doxycycline (PO) 100mg 12 hourly for 10 days

Note: Patients with systemic diseases/conditions such as diabetes mellitus, liver and renal diseases, HIV/AIDS, and those who are pregnant or heavy smokers of cigarette are generally at increased risk of periodontal diseases and their management may need referral to a periodontal specialist.

16.1.3 Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG)

It is a severe form of gingivitis and i s characterized by rapid destruction of gingival tissue, particularly in the area of the interdental papilla. Patients usually present with soreness and bleeding of the gums and foul smell test (fetor-ex ore/halitosis). Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG) is also called Vincent’s gingivitis or Vincent’s gingivostomatitis. It is common in malnourished children and immunocompromised individuals especially patients with diabetes and HIV/AIDS.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Painful and easily bleeding gingival swelling and erythema of the gingival margins
  • Yellowish-white ulceration of the gingival
  • Fever, malaise and regional lymphadenitis
  • In some patients (especially malnourished children), ANUG may presents with extensive destruction of the face and jaws in the severe form known as Cancrum Oris or noma

Pharmacological treatment

Professional cleaning with Hydrogen Peroxide 3% (under local anesthesia)

A: Metronidazole 400 mg (PO) 8 hourly for 5 days


A: Amoxicillin 500mg (PO) 8 hourly for 5 days

16.1.4 Stomatitis

This is generalized inflammation of the oral mucosal (including the gingiva) due to different aetiologies such as infections, chemical burn, radiation and allergy.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Oral sores and ulceration

Pharmacological treatment

Generally supportive
Mouth wash

A: Hydrogen peroxide solution 3% 6 houlry for at least 5 days


C: Chlorhexidine 0.2% topical oral gel 12 hourly

Note: Mouth wash should not be used at the same time with the gel. Also should not be swallowed.

Oral analgesics can be added

A: Paracetamol (PO) 1gm 8 hourly for at least 3 days


A: Ibuprofen (PO) 400 mg 8 hourly for at least 3 days


C: Diclofenac (PO) 50 mg 8 hourly for at least 3 days

The codes will be shown below

First: 170598
Second: 180198

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