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15.6 ENT Malignancies

Table of Contents

15.6.1 Cancer of the Larynx

It is the commonest ENT malignancy. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, gastroesophageal reflux disease and human papilloma virus.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Progressive hoarseness of voice
  • Difficulty in breathing (inspiratory stridor)
  • Hemoptysis

Referral:

Refer the patient to the next facility with adequate expertise and facilities

NOTE: Any patient with progressive hoarseness of voice for more than two weeks should undergo laryngoscopy

15.6.2 Sino-Nasal Malignancy

Is a malignancy of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Risk factors include wood dust (both soft and hard), wielding dust, lather industry fumes, hydrocarbons fumes, and aflatoxin dust.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Nasal bleeding
  • Nasal discharge
  • Nasal obstruction
  • Teeth loosening
  • Cheek swelling
  • Proptosis
  • Hearing loss

Referral: Refer the patient to the next facility with adequate expertise and facilities

15.6.3 Naso-Pharyngeal Malignancy

It is a malignancy which arises from the nasopharynx. Risk factors include genetic predisposition, Epstein Bar virus, smoked and/or salted foods.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Cervical lymphadenopthy, usually bilateral
  • Nose bleeding
  • Hearing loss, tinnitus or ear pain

Referral: Refer the patient to the next facility with adequate expertise and facilities

NOTE: A patient presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy has nasopharyngeal carcinoma until proven otherwise

15.6.4 Hypo-Pharyngeal Malignancy

It is a malignancy which arises from the hypopharynx.Risk factors include cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Progressive dysphasia
  • Progressive odynophagia
  • Hematemesis/hemoptysis
  • Ear pain (referred otalgia)
  • Cervical lymphadenopathy
  • Difficulty in breathing (inspiratory stridor)

Referral: Refer the patient to the next facility with adequate expertise and facilities

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